Intenzivan razvoj turizma nemoguć je danas bez pravilne turističke valorizacije antropogenih, etnografskih, prirodnih, odnosno turističkih motiva. Zato turizam mora uvažavati potrebu zaštite spomenika kulture, kulturno povijesnih znamenitosti, klimatskih uvjeta, prirodnih ljepota i drugih vrijednosti jer samo dobro očuvani, restaurirani i zaštićeni elementi destinacijskih vrijednosti predstavljaju pravu turističku vrijednost koju potrošač u turizmu percipira prilikom odabira turističke destinacije.
Turizam je generator bruto domaćeg proizvoda i razvoja cjelokupnogospodarstva zemlje. Uspješnost turizma ovisi o razini razumijevanja potreba, motiva i sustava vrijednosti i isporuke vrijednosti potrošačima u turizmu, a one se s ovećanjem shvaćanja važnosti rješavanja ekoloških i društvenih problema sve više mijenjaju i usmjeravaju prema pitanjima održivosti. Segment potrošača s povećanim shvaćanjem važnosti održivog razvoja u turizmu sve je veći i stoga je koncept održivog razvoja u svojoj implementaciji sve značajniji. Financijski rezultati usmjereni na realizaciju visoke stope dobiti ne mogu biti realizirane bez nužnosti suradnje svih dionika na razini destinacije, bez razvoja i plasmana autohtonih proizvoda te adekvatnom strategijom održivog razvoja i sustavnim upravljanjem kvalitetom na razini turističke destinacije.
Održiva turistička destinacija, kako bi potrošačima u turizmu isporučila kvalitetan integrirani turistički proizvod, smanjuje pritisak na destinacijske kapcitete, ostvaruje dopadljiv i ekološki prihvatljiv destinacijski prostor, razvija autohtone parcijalne turističke proizvode s predznakom „prirodno, tradicionalno i ekološki uravnoteženo“, osigurava ekskluzivnost i prepoznatljivost turističkog sadržaja i prostora, osigurava potrošačima u turizmu poseban i jedinstven doživljaj.
Sukladno teoriji osobnosti, većina potrošača u turizmu veliki dio svog odmora provode u traženju i istraživanju uzbuđujućih aktivnosti, što znači da će u potrazi za različitim, novim, kompleksnim i intenzivnim podražajima i iskustvima, potrošači u turizmu preferirati „kompleksniju“ turističku destinaciju punu informacija i parcijalnih turističkih proizvoda. Potrošači u turizmu prilikom odabira integriranog turističkog proizvoda osjećaju potrebu za brojnim i bogatim doživljajima i iskustvima, stoga odnos cijene i integriranog turističkog proizvoda danas sve više postaje odnos cijene i doživljaja. U „ekonomiji iskustva“ doživljaji i iskustvo postali su vrhunska tržišna vrijednost, a potrošači u turizmu traže dublje, raznovrsnije i intenzivnije doživljaje tijekom putovanja. Iskustvo potrošača u turizmu je dominantan oblik hedonističkih vrijednosti i kvalitete integriranog turističkog proizvoda koje se uglavnom temelje na emocijama potrošača u turizmu.
|Sažetak (engleski)|| |
Intensive development of tourism industry is impossible today without a proper tourism valuation of anthropogenic, ethnographic, natural or tourism motives. This is why the tourism industry needs to appreciate the need for protecting cultural monuments, cultural and historic landmarks, weather conditions, natural wonders and other values, as it is only the well preserved, restored and protected elements of destination values that represent true tourism value that a consumer perceives when choosing a tourist destination.
Sustainable tourist destinations recognize a need for protection of natural and cultural-historical values, biological differences, but also promotion of the economic development of local population. For this reason,they protect their destination values with various protection programs and create them as a part of the ”traditional culture" by satisfying customers' in tourism needs, and promoting the development of the local population. Tourism established upon the sustainable development puts emphasis on those customs, institutions, and values of the local population which fit in term of the sustainable destination values, while ignoring the ones that do not fit in.
The sustainable tourist destination serves ecological interests of the local population which has been included in the phylosophy of maintenance and development, promoting local, autochthonous products as a fruit of the community while offering consumers in tourism an authentic experience. In order for the problematic relationship of sustainable development to be understood, the protection of destination value (natural beauties, culture, non material inheritance), accomplishment of the positive financial results and consumers in tourism needs' satisfaction and protection of quality of life of the local population, a destination value process complexity is explained and from their perception which in its basis starts from the choice of destination values, creation of destination values, and delivery of destination values which are perceived by the consumer in tourism and based on which a decision is brought regarding the destination choice for vacation, relaxation, and new experience. The system of quality,but firstly an ecological destination balance and sustainable development , are the key factors that are insisted upon, in order to achieve and preserve competitiveness of the destination and obtain a successful ranking in tourism. Keeping in mind an international destination image, then the destination core becomes through its ecological balance a key high value resource. A quality tourism brings to sustainable development of natural and rich offer while assuring competitiveness of the international market.
Tourism is the generator of a country’s GDP and the development of the entire economy. The success of the tourism industry depends on the level of understanding the needs, motives, value systems of tourism consumers and the delivery of these values, which are increasingly changing and focusing on sustainability concerns with the enhanced understanding of the importance of addressing ecological and social issues. This is why the concept of sustainable development is gaining significance in its implementation. Financial results that focus on achieving high profit rates cannot be achieved without the co-operation of all stakeholders at destination level, without developing and marketing indigenous products and an appropriate strategy of sustainable development and systematic quality management at tourist destination level. Basing the politics and product development strategy on the destination resources, model of the sustainable development in tourism, and the way of modelling and managing destination values is the only possible choice of management of the touristic destinations. Within the concept domain of the sustainable development, the destination values promote development of standards which are necessary for protection of natural, cultural-historical, and the other resources and an increase in consumer security in tourism.
The safety of consumers in tourism becomes an increasingly important factor in assessing the quality of the destination and the tourist offer and as well an important factor in the costs estimation when deciding on the choice. Superior, attractive, authentic, diverse, quality and sustainable tourist destination is the main reason of the financial success of a tourist destination because it leads towards satisfaction and loyalty of tourists, and building of long-term relationships, stimulates emotions, energy, and socially responsible behavior from the consumers in tourism's side, as well as domicile, local population. In the global tourism market, there is growing demand for untouched, ecologically clean destinations as a response to the fast pace of modern and urban life in overcrowded cities.
Based on previous research, the doctoral dissertation entitled "Perceived Value of a Sustainable Tourist Destination From a Quality Point" strives to point to consumer behavioral frames in tourism, taking into account the concept of sustainable development in tourism. The concept of travelling has changed through time and culture. An increasing number of consumers can no longer avoid awareness of the damage due to their own consumption. A mixture of pleasure, envy, and conditioning means that most can not substantially change their spending habits. Sustainable development in tourism is therefore important in product creating and services that provide recognizable signs of sustainability, visibly ethical or health products, and those products and services where no general benefit is visible (where the tourist destinations will need to create a story based on those recognizable specialties that consumer in tourism can talk about to others upon his return from a trip). Today's tourists are experienced travelers who grasp at various forms of integration and shape their leisure time in accordance with the new form of life and new values which were created by the process of globalization. Staying in the chosen tourist destination for a consumer represents a form of existence that the consumer in tourism chooses consciousnessly in order to realize self-actualization. By choosing a tourist destination for travelling, viewing the attractiveness of destinations, their cultural and historical heritage, a consumer in tourism is often amazed by the intensity of presentation of a particular destination. Even more, the consumer in tourism is fascinated by splendor, attractiveness, and the destination glamour, therefore in this game of "Hide and seak, " the choice of destination represents to the consumer in tourism an illusion of conquering the invisible, attractive areas of the destination all from the wartmth of his home.
Endogenous consumer preferences, consumer values and his lifestyle affect consumer behavior in tourism, and it is imperative to understand the values and attitudes of the target market through research. By analyzing scientific and professional literature, it has been found that there are many definitions of values, while for this doctoral dissertation the value is the bearer of emotion which is important in life, which is also a variable for measuring consumer satisfaction in tourism. The value of choosing a sustainable tourist destination from the quality aspect is influenced by personal, social, and psychological factors. The experiences of consumers in tourism and their lifestyle, environment, and its surroundings in which they live in may influence sellection of the tourist destination.
Preparation of a high quality offer of an integrated touristic product that will be recognizable in relation to the competition should be based in fact on the motives of choosing a sustainable tourist destination presented in this doctoral dissertation. Also, a psychological dimension plays a key role in perception of destination values and in understanding of travel and integrated touristic products. The choice of an integrated tourist product includes the following attributes (destination, type of accommodation, organization and travel mode, use of leisure time at destination, choice of excursions) and as such, it leads to benefits for tourism consumers but also to the costs that they are willing to handle during vacation. The modern consumer in tourism when selecting a sustainable tourist destination collects information about the integrated tourist product that are of interest to him, ranks them in accordance to his own value system and to the endogenous preferences, while creating his own point of view regarding attractiveness, cultural-historical heritage, natural beauty, and the nonmaterial heritage of a sustainable tourist destination. Exotic and distant, the sustainable tourist destinations target the institution value within the framework of a sustainable tourism dialogue, forming codes of destination attractiveness and ecological balance on the global touristic market. Through its mission, it directs the development of a tourist destination towards the universal and recognizable destination values and have become an indispensable part of a contemporary and modern consumer life. It can be characterized as an integral tourist product that in the eyes of the consumers creates added value in a form of a special sense of satisfaction.
When it comes to estimating the value obtained by traveling, it is important to highlight two dimensions that affect the perception of destination values and the degree of satisfaction achieved by the same: a subjective and existential reality which is based on the personal experience of the destination and the valuation of each personality or partial tourist products as existential reality, or the way in which consumers in tourism perceive their own tourist experience through the destination values and the amount of money that will be allocated to obtain the destination experience. Bearing in mind the previously mentioned, the link between the touristic needs and motives as a cause of tourist travel, on the one hand, and the tourist experience, as the ultimate goal and the purpose of travel, is becoming clearer. As the means of meeting needs of the modern consumers in tourism, through the experience and perception of destination values, there are numerous tourist attractions that are able to meet the touristic needs. The pleasure stems from the experience of a destination that could not be realized in the place of their stay. Therefore, in order to fully understand the dimensions of tourism, it is necessary to investigate (what is the purpose of this doctoral dissertation) the key groups of elements such as: touristic needs and tourism motives, value perceptions of a sustainable touristic destination, the quality of the delivered integrated touristic product and touristic experience.